We argue that typical mechanical systems subjected to a monotonous parameter drift whose time scale is comparable to that of the internal dynamics can be considered to undergo their own climate change. Because of their chaotic dynamics, there are many permitted states at any instant, and their time dependence can be followed - in analogy with the real climate - by monitoring parallel dynamical evolutions originating from different initial conditions. To this end an ensemble view is needed, enabling one to compute ensemble averages characterizing the instantaneous state of the system. We illustrate this on the examples of (i) driven dissipative and (ii) Hamiltonian systems and of (iii) non-driven dissipative ones. We show that in order to find the most transparent view, attention should be paid to the choice of the initial ensemble. While the choice of this ensemble is arbitrary in the case of driven dissipative systems (i), in the Hamiltonian case (ii) either KAM tori or chaotic seas should be taken, and in the third class (iii) the best choice is the KAM tori of the dissipation-free limit. In all cases, the time evolution of the chosen ensemble on snapshots illustrates nicely the geometrical changes occurring in the phase space, including the strengthening, weakening or disappearance of chaos. Furthermore, we show that a Smale horseshoe (a chaotic saddle) that is changing in time is present in all cases. Its disappearance is a geometrical sign of the vanishing of chaos. The so-called ensemble-averaged pairwise distance is found to provide an easily accessible quantitative measure for the strength of chaos in the ensemble. Its slope can be considered as an instantaneous Lyapunov exponent whose zero value signals the vanishing of chaos. Paradigmatic low-dimensional bistable systems are used as illustrative examples whose driving in (i, ii) is chosen to decay in time in order to maintain an analogy with case (iii) where the total energy decreases all the time.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

Figure 6

Figure 7

Figure 8

Figure 9

Figure 10

Figure 11

Figure 12

Figure 13

Figure 14

Figure 15

Figure 16

Figure 17

Figure 18

Figure 19

Figure 20

Figure 21

Figure 22

This preprint is available for download as a PDF.

Loading...

Posted 16 Apr, 2021

###### Reviewers invited

Invitations sent on 16 Apr, 2021

###### Reviews received

Received 16 Apr, 2021

###### First submitted

On 16 Apr, 2021

###### Editor assigned

On 15 Apr, 2021

Posted 16 Apr, 2021

###### Reviewers invited

Invitations sent on 16 Apr, 2021

###### Reviews received

Received 16 Apr, 2021

###### First submitted

On 16 Apr, 2021

###### Editor assigned

On 15 Apr, 2021

We argue that typical mechanical systems subjected to a monotonous parameter drift whose time scale is comparable to that of the internal dynamics can be considered to undergo their own climate change. Because of their chaotic dynamics, there are many permitted states at any instant, and their time dependence can be followed - in analogy with the real climate - by monitoring parallel dynamical evolutions originating from different initial conditions. To this end an ensemble view is needed, enabling one to compute ensemble averages characterizing the instantaneous state of the system. We illustrate this on the examples of (i) driven dissipative and (ii) Hamiltonian systems and of (iii) non-driven dissipative ones. We show that in order to find the most transparent view, attention should be paid to the choice of the initial ensemble. While the choice of this ensemble is arbitrary in the case of driven dissipative systems (i), in the Hamiltonian case (ii) either KAM tori or chaotic seas should be taken, and in the third class (iii) the best choice is the KAM tori of the dissipation-free limit. In all cases, the time evolution of the chosen ensemble on snapshots illustrates nicely the geometrical changes occurring in the phase space, including the strengthening, weakening or disappearance of chaos. Furthermore, we show that a Smale horseshoe (a chaotic saddle) that is changing in time is present in all cases. Its disappearance is a geometrical sign of the vanishing of chaos. The so-called ensemble-averaged pairwise distance is found to provide an easily accessible quantitative measure for the strength of chaos in the ensemble. Its slope can be considered as an instantaneous Lyapunov exponent whose zero value signals the vanishing of chaos. Paradigmatic low-dimensional bistable systems are used as illustrative examples whose driving in (i, ii) is chosen to decay in time in order to maintain an analogy with case (iii) where the total energy decreases all the time.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

Figure 6

Figure 7

Figure 8

Figure 9

Figure 10

Figure 11

Figure 12

Figure 13

Figure 14

Figure 15

Figure 16

Figure 17

Figure 18

Figure 19

Figure 20

Figure 21

Figure 22

This preprint is available for download as a PDF.

Loading...